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Undertake a rapid appraisal of the area to review the profile of the project and the ecological context. The dispute can be traced back to Vedanta's plan to expand alumina capacities in Lanjigarh with bauxite mined from nearby Niyamgiri hills. The Vedanta got bauxite from Kodingamali mines, located about 152 km from its refinery at Lanjigarh in Odisha's Kalahandi district. Long term impacts to conservation prospects. Mine site preparation and access of road to hill to involve removal of prime vegetation cover from Niyamgiri RF, Nimagiri PRF, Khambesi RF and Jungle Block PF. Vedanta Alumina signed the joint venture agreement with the OMC in 2003 for developing bauxite mines at the Niyamgiri hill near Lanjigarh for use in its one-million-tonne alumina refinery being set up at a cost of Rs.4,000 crores. The team of WII, Dehradun also organized pre-site appraisal interactions at Bhubaneswar with Sh. 4.3. According to reports, Vedanta admitted that it would participate in auctions of new bauxite mines in Odisha. The bauxite mines of OMC are spread over an area of 428.31 hectares in tribal dominated Koraput and Rayagada districts. Even during these difficult times arising out of Covid-19, we continue to remain committed to keeping you informed and updated with credible news, authoritative views and incisive commentary on topical issues of relevance. Why the feasibility of exploration and exploitation of bauxite reserves have not been assessed for proposing bauxite mining in such areas and instead the reserves falling in sensitive habitats in the RFs PF and other sensitive habitats of conservation importance are being increasingly preferred? Open Cast Mechanized (OCM) method of mining with horizontal benching is proposed. The shrubs Helecteres isora, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lagestronemia parviflora and woodfordia fruticosa, etc. Mines were operating under second deemed renewal; these mines contribute 45% of bauxite output in the state ... (VAL) will be provided laterite deposits to run its plant at Lanjigarh in Kala... more. Kindly visit the Manage my subscription page to discover the benefits of this programme. Bauxites occur mainly on the flat plateaus ranging from 1218 m to 1306 m. Theses plateaus are gently sloping at 1:4 to1:10. This report also highlighted concern on the aspects of land degradation and soil erosion which may alter rain water flow and natural drainage systems. The site inspection report of the Deputy Conservator Forests (Central) indicate that the total tree removal proposed involves 1,21,337 no. From the outside areas of the investigated plots, scats of sloth bear were also recorded. The Supreme Court of India asked in April 2013 for public consultations in … In February 2018, the Odisha state cabinet approved long-term bauxite linkage policy that would help alumina refineries, such as Vedanta's Lanjigarh, source bauxite from state-owned Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC). Few stunted trees like Shorea robusta, Buchanania lanzan, Emblica officinalis and Syzygium cumini are found sporadically. Inevitably, exodus of people involved in mining activities will also exert pressures on residual natural resources. It is estimated in the mining plan that present topographic level after restoration will be lowered by 10-15 m. this will bring changes in geomorphology of the area and enhance several other consequences leading to soil erosion and impact on drainage and forest productivity. This clearence is still pending. Sal (Shorea robusta) grows at lower elevation where soil quality is better. 8-23/2005-FC dated 9.3.2006 ( Annexure-I) issued directives to the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) to undertake studies related to the impacts of mining on biodiversity including wildlife and its habitat in the proposed area. After the Niyamgiri mines fiasco, the state government is now proposing to link the bauxite from the Kodingamali mines, which has a reserve of 100 million tonne, to the Lanjigarh plant. We believe in free, fair and credible journalism. Shri Y. S. Manian, General manager, Lanjigarh Alumina Refinary Project, Delhi. The ACF, Raygada also reported presence of bear, wolf in Paligaon beat and a group of twelve elephants in Potangipadar beat of. Occurrence of less shifting cultivation qualifies the forests and wildlife habitat much better than that of the existing Kotagarh WLS, which at present is suffering from shifting cultivation, fire and other human interferences. The bauxite mines of OMC are spread over an area of 428.31 hectares in tribal dominated Koraput and Rayagada districts. Since April 1997, Vedanta Resources has had plans for a bauxite mine at the foot of the Niyamgiri Hills in Orissa, India, to more easily supply its nearby aluminium refinery at Lanjigarh with raw materials. Majority of the streams are originating from lowermost control of the Bauxite layer. The loosened material will be lifted through hydraulic shovel or by front loaders. An assessment period to cover the seasonally of events like migration, breeding and the phonology of the floral species is desirable for true assessment of the status of wildlife values of the area. Last Updated at August 17, 2016 21:48 IST. Bauxite is formed though leaching of soluble minerals, so it is not surprising that mines are generally situated in the areas of high rainfall (average 1487 mm per year). This situation eventually will reduce elephant movements across Niyamgiri massif to Karlapath and Kotagarh Wildlife Sanctuaries and ultimately effect the population structure and there by its genetic diversity. While the refinery in Lanjigarh has been built, it depends on bauxite brought by train and truck from far away. Mining Conflict ‘We want our hill back’: Adivasis in Odisha’s Koraput district fight to stop bauxite mining Effluents from mines have turned farmland infertile and poisoned drinking water. Vedanta plans to ramp up its smleter capacity to 3mtpa from the present 1.7 mtpa. According to the estimation of elephants in May 2002, there are 179 elephants in the proposed Elephant Reserve covering areas of five forest divisions. As all these blocs were close to each other, the variation in the pellet density indices was due to habitat variables in term of grass conditions and aspects. Langia Sauras and Suddha Sauras. Reduction in numbers of some endangered species of plants and animals in the long terms will be eminent and unavoidable. Indirect evidences of herbivores presence were also recorded based on several tree posts that were used by herbivores for antler rubbing. 4.1 Forest structure and vegetation characteristics of the project area. 3.0 Proposal for diversion of forests for mining. The bauxite mines of OMC are spread over an area of 428.31 hectares in tribal dominated Koraput and Rayagada districts. Open cast conventional horizontal bench method (30 m width) along with traditional modes of drilling/ blasting or by ripping has been proposed for bauxite mining at Niyamgiri. In the same habitat we have also seen flock of Indian Lorikeet, Loriculus vernalis on the top canopy layers, clamber about the branches in flowers and fruits. Besides that there were sightings of male and female sambars, barking deer, porcupine and rhesus monkeys in and around Niyamgiri areas. 1474 with I.A. K. Singhpur range falling in Nimagiri PRF. As a result, the Jharsuguda smelter is unable to source sufficient alumina, the feedstock for aluminium, in house. The team of WII from 3rd to 6th May 2006: The WII team was assisted in the field studies by the following officials representing the Orissa Forest Department and the Project Authorities. While the refinery in Lanjigarh has been built, it depends on bauxite brought by train and truck from far away. The Odisha Mining Corporation signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Indian mining company Vedanta to supply 70% of the bauxite obtained from Kodingamali to Vedanta’s refinery situated about 150 km away at Lanjigarh in Kalahandi district. The top tree layer consists of Pterocarpus marsupium, Xylia xylocarpa, Adina cordifolia, Bridelia retusa, Shorea robusta and Syzygium cumini, etc. Moist peninsular Sal forests dominate north-west and south-west of the Niyamgiri hill ranges. The bauxite mines of OMC are spread over an area of 428.31 hectares (ha) in Koraput and Rayagada districts. The site inspection report indicated that the biodiversity and wildlife in the area is likely to be affected adversely due to bauxite mining for which a further in-depth study will be required. The above proposal submitted by the State forest Department for Forest Diversion was also examined by the Forest Advisory Committee (FAC) constituted under Section –3 of the FCA (1980). The presence of flagship indicator species such as elephant in majority of Forest Divisions indicates availability of forest in spite of large forest area suffering from shifting cultivation or Podu. Niyamgiri massif is important both from biological richness and functional standpoint. During monitoring of tiger, co-predator and herbivore estimation from 18.01.2006 to 23.01.2006 in Niyamgiri RF, Pugmarks of leopard and leopard with cub, sloth bear and hyena have been recorded as reported by DFO, Kalahandi (South) Forest Division. Despite the fact that the directives from MOEF required adherence to stringent timeline of three months for the completion of the study, WII team initiated the above studies with the following objectives: i. The bauxite will be then carried to the primary crusher hopper or dump at the ROM bauxite stockpile. 2. In order to operate the Lanjigarh mines and another mine (both such mines having a cumulative deposit of bauxite ore of about 150 million tonnes), OMC & VAL agreed to set up a joint venture company (hereinafter called “JVC”) on the principal terms and conditions set forth in the said Agreement dated the 5 th October, 2004. The assessment team could not take proper comprehensive view of current and future bauxite mining in the region in absence of prospected bauxite resources map in South Orissa. For assessment of animal occupancy and utilization of the area by these animal, 14 circular plots of f10.3 m size in four plateau blocks –A (5 plot); B (3 plot); C (3 plots) and D (3 plots) were laid in the study area during the month of May. The extensive hill slopes and foot hills including greater part of the region are occupied by dry deciduous mixed forests. It is anticipated that the removal of this layer of bauxite will impact ground waters in the region, and consequently the quality of forested habitats. Other tree species are Terminalia alate. The cost benefit ratio projected for the mining project is 1: 4.377. An access road from the Alumina Plant at Lanjigarh (430 m) to the Niyamgiri hill top (1150m) is proposed to align along the western foothill toward southern side on gentle gradient of 5-60 (Figs. The proposal for mining of bauxite in Lanjigarh has been conceived by M/s Orissa Mining Corporation Limited (OMC) to utilize the bauxite reserves in Orissa. 3. Meanwhile, Sesa Mining Corporation Employees' Union (SMCEU) has said the workers will not report on their duties as the important demands have not yet been fulfilled. “We will make arrangements for bauxite supplies to the Vedanta […] Vedanta has been running its refinery at Lanjigarh by importing bauxite … A site inspection of the project area was undertaken by the Chief Conservator of Forests (Central), Bhubaneswar, Regional Office of the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Gol. Our subscription model has seen an encouraging response from many of you, who have subscribed to our online content. Elephants also visit these areas during rainy season when grasses are abundantly found in this area. Based on certain assessment parameters like absence presence of species in the areas determined through direct and indirect evidences, knowledge of movement and migration routes of key species like the elephant and the existing threat factors operating in the area, the existing status of the project area in terms of it wildlife values in the pre- project scenario was evaluated. This report is restricted in scope to assess the impacts that are likely to affect forest structure, use pattern of wildlife species occupying the area and the quality of the wildlife habitats that harbour diverse floral and faunal species. The State Government of Orissa has submitted the proposal to the Ministry of Environment and Forest under Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 for diversion of 672.018 ha forest land for mining of bauxite by Orissa Mining Corporation Limited. Vedanta has been pleading for alternative bauxite mines after the Centre's Environment Ministry rejected mining activities at Niyamgiri hills. In reality, however, these plateaus are very productive with high occurrence of several herbivore and carnivore species. Press Trust of India | In 2017, the Indian government identified 71 major mineral blocks in seven states that will be auctioned. The unit has been compelled to run on low capacity on imported bauxite. These sanctuaries altogether constitute only 10% of the ER, while remaining 90% habitats are interspersed with forested (approximately 50%) and traditional agro-ecosystem (approximately 40%) where subsistence farming is still practiced without much modern involved technology. Actors The principle actors in the supply chain of Bauxite are:- In the original report, some wild animals’ photographs are placed in the report. Based on the experience of conducting similar studies in the past, the WII team evolved a Pragmatic approach of visualizing the activities linked to the project implementation and developing a possible linkage between various project activities and their potential to bring about changes in habitat use by species or the changes in the habitat characteristics of the species known to occur in the project area. This high plateaus are covered with grasses with stunted trees and shrubs. As we battle the economic impact of the pandemic, we need your support even more, so that we can continue to offer you more quality content. Despite obtaining environmental clearance and other clearances to expand the capacity of the refinery to produce 6 million tons of aluminum a year, the company has been aiming at the large-scale bauxite reserves in Niyamgiri hills. The table presented below shows the pellet density index as indirect signs of several animals utilizing the habitat in the mineralized plateau. The forest cover on the Niyamgiri hill range as observed in the field is dense and will fall on average cover category of around 0.6. The proposal has been moved by the project authorities for seeking relevant clearances under FCA (1980) and EPA. The importance of Niyamgiri massif forests with little shifting cultivation and better vegetation cover therefore assumes a greater role on the landscape as repository of biodiversity, forests and wildlife for their interactions and dispersal to the adjoining areas. At present the state-owned Odisha Mining Corporation (OMC) holds the mining lease to the bauxite mines in question. 12th gram sabha too votes against Vedanta mining. In respect of bauxite mines at Lanjigarh, Orissa, public interest litigations were filed in 2004 by Indian non-government organisations led by the People's Union for Civil Liberties to the supreme court sub-committee regarding the potential environmental impact of the mines. This will also create interference with resource availability to wildlife species and thereby further restrict use of area by wildlife species. Various kinds environmental degradations and impacts are associated with this kind of mining. STUDIES ON IMPACT OF PROPOSED LANJIGARH BAUXITE MINING ON BIODIVERSITY INCLUDING WILDLIFE AND ITS HABITAT, Evaluation of the impacts of proposed Lanjigarh bauxite mine on wildlife values of the area. 1. The mining plan proposes to have 3 working shifts of 8 h3rs each per day and 6 days per week. Important middle storey consists of shrubs like Ardisia solanaceae, Ficus semicaudata, Litsea monopetala, etc. Mohd. Orissa is the leading bauxite producing state constituting over 42% alone amongst all. As we don’t have the photograph which they have placed in the cover page as well as inside the report, we have used the photograph available with us in the cover page. Provide an overview of potential impacts as perceived through rapid appraisal. Marginal farming of crops in podu cultivated areas is common millet Panicum sumatrense, barnyard millet Echinochola colnum, red gram Cajanus cajan and castor Ricinus communis. The company had illegally suspended the operations in mid-October at Bicholim mines which they have now revoked. The decision with respect to authorization of the proposed bauxite mining project is sub-judiced before the Hon’ble Supreme Court, which by its interim order dated 3.2.2006 in I.A.  Until now, Vedanta has obtained its bauxite mostly from illegally-operated mines. In pursuance of the recommendations of the Forest Advisory Committee (FAC), MoEF vide its letter F No. Ministry of Environment & Forest had issued directives to the Wildlife Institute of India to undertake studies related to the impacts of mining on biodiversity including wildlife and its habitat in the proposed Bauxite Mining area at Lanjigarh, Kalahandi as per the recommendations of the Forest Advisory Committee. The herbaceous flora consist of Curcuma sps, Zingiber sps., Phrynium placentarum, Hedychium sps., many ferns and orchids. Vedanta is also planning to mine bauxite in the area via its subsidiary company, Sterlite Industries India Ltd. As a premium subscriber you get an across device unfettered access to a range of services which include: Welcome to the premium services of Business Standard brought to you courtesy FIS. The company, sensing trouble in availability of raw material, had sent a three-month intimation to … India ranks fifth amongst bauxite producing countries in the world. Niyamgiri is the highest peak 1516 m in the massif. Vedanta Ltd has been unable to get final permission for mining bauxite from the Niyamgiri Hills. Vedanta seeks alternative mine for Lanjigarh refinery 1 min read. In the nutshell, it can be stated that the Niyamgiri and its adjoining area are excellent remnant forests and wildlife habitat available in the region. During summer, elephant uses such kind of tropical evergreen moist deciduous forests habitats. The relevant secondary information on the ecology of the project area, published and unpublished information on conservation values was also perused for the study. Unavailability of bauxite meant the company's Lanjigarh alumina factory would languish from raw material crunch. The forests provide several vegetation communities such as tropical evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forests, dry deciduous mixed forests, moist peninsular Sal Forests, dense bamboo forests, scrub woodlands, open scrubs and grasslands. The mining plan proposes excavation of 78 million tons of overburden. According to the mineral survey in 1995, the total recoverable resources are approximately 2462 million tones, of which 768.2; 586.4 and 1107.8 million tones falls in categories of proved, probable ad possible respectively. Figure 3 shows classified forest cover map in the categories of dense, open and scrub forests of Niyamgiri and its linkages with two adjoining project areas – Karlapat WLS on north -west and Kotagarh WLS in north-east. They have not done any favour to the workers," Ajitsingh Rane, President, SMCEU, told, Business Standard has always strived hard to provide up-to-date information and commentary on developments that are of interest to you and have wider political and economic implications for the country and the world. 4.4. Brinjal Solanum melanogena, tomato Lycopersicum esculentum, bean Phascolous vulgaris, edible arum Colocasia esculenta, sweet potato Curfcuma domestica, ginger Zingiber officinale and Chili Capsicum annum. Earlier, the aluminium major had argued that it located the refinery at Lanjigarh keeping in view the abundance of bauxite in and around the area. Bauxite mining at Niyamgiri will bring several changes due to blasting and disturbances to the forested habitat over a period of 25 years. The mineralized area within the lease area would be mined in four blocks covering an area of 3.55 KM2 (Fig.2) These include block A (1.16 km2); block B. 202 of 1995 has directed that various studies to assess the impact of the project may be accomplished within three months. The field tracking by the WII team on a hill transact north face of Niyamgiri dated 05.05.06 also recorded a few days old dung of elephants Good water streams, cool and moist places were also seen while travelling along the hill fold. There are two major tribes Sauras and Kondh practicing shifting cultivation in the region. On 25th April 2005, 23 elephants were sighted in Biswanathpur Range that includes Niyamgiri RF and Benbhata RF. This does not account for non use values of the forests. The landscape integrity the terms of biodiversity, forests and wildlife in the region can only be planned and ensured by undertaking strategic planning for future bauxite mining in the region. 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